Monday, May 25, 2020

Essay on Electronic Writing Will Not Make Books Obsolete

Electronic Writing Will Not Make Books Obsolete Twenty years ago, the thought of instantly publishing your thoughts for the world to see with the simple push of a button, would have been a dream. Today, websites and on-line forums have made this dream possible. Through the years, technology has made advancements in many fields. Today, nowhere is that more apparent than in the field of writing. Electronic writing’s detractors fear that the increase of electronic writing will spell disaster for modern language. History does not support this claim however. Some additional complaints about electronic text are that it is not aesthetically pleasing and it is awkward to read. This is a copout for people unwilling to†¦show more content†¦He believes modern language and writing owe everything to the printed word (which is not entirely untrue), and he is terrified that electronic writing will ruin modern language. What Birkets is forgetting, is that at one time, the book was just as new and scary a technology as ele ctronic text is now. George Landow explains in Twenty Minutes into the Future, or How Are We Moving Beyond the Book?, â€Å"We have to remind ourselves that if, how, and whenever we move beyond the book, that movement will not embody a movement from something natural or human to something artificial—from nature to technology—since writing and printing and books are about as technological as one can be (219).† We have grown so accustom to books that we take them for granted. People like Birkets forget that books are a form of technology too. As Landow describes them, books are â€Å"teaching and communicating machines (219).† The advent of books and printing technology has not destroyed language, and I doubt if the invention of electronic text will spell the demise of language either. Relaxing in a hot bath, curled up by a roaring fire, catching some rays on the beach, these are the places people read for enjoyment. Electronic text will never replace the old fashioned book in these arenas, they are simply not conducive to electronic reading. Landow’s story about Edward Tufte is another example of where electronic text will never replace books. Tufte â€Å"lovingly†Show MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Digital Writing1613 Words   |  7 PagesDo you text or post on social media? Most people don’t know, but, that is digital writing. You may have thought that it was more advanced and had certain requirements to be considered digital writing, however any writing that can be accessed online or on a computer is categorized as digital writing. The method plays a large role in classrooms, business offices, doctor’s offices, and the list goes on and on. Now, in our digital age, it’s becoming harder and harder to find someone who doesnt o wnRead MoreThe Negative Effects Of Technology On Manual Script Writing1431 Words   |  6 Pages However, she can see the negative effects that technology has on manual script writing for elementary school students. Sometimes the writer has had a hard time understanding some of her students handwriting and if she asks them what they wrote they do not understand their own handwriting. The writer thinks it will be beneficial for educators to find out what negative effects technology has on manual script writing. Furthermore, how has technology effected manual script handwriting? The CanadianRead MoreEssay about The Surrender of Books to Technology1016 Words   |  5 Pageswalk around hypnotized by the digital images on their electronic devices, where an unlimited supply of knowledge is at a user’s fingertips – thanks to the smartphone. Able to access information quicker than finding a book, these phones have the capabilities of providing amble amounts of knowledge in lightning speeds. Tablets and portable computers are easily accessible and at the fingertips of users. People almost everywhere are using electronics now as the chief source of learning. If you visit librariesRead More The Influence of Technology on Literature Essay1697 Words   |  7 PagesThe Influence of Technology on Literature This essay will discuss the way new technologies have influenced some of the areas of literature. Whilst the writer of this essay acknowledges the development of cyber books for their pure entertainment value, this essay will focus on the influence of new technology in the practical advances in the literature and associated industries. This includes the influences that new technology has had on the entertainment aspect, the educational aspect, the industryRead MoreAssistive Technology and Students with Visual Impairments952 Words   |  4 Pagescan be very difficult for students who have visual impairments. When using PowerPoint, most students who have visual impairments prefer to use the help of sighted students to make the presentations visually appealing (D’Andre). This is because they are unable to correctly judge what is visually appealing. When it comes to writing papers, most students use computers or devices with refreshable braille displays and turn them in on paper. Formatting a paper is almost impossible on certain devices thatRead MoreOld Teaching Methods and Technology are Needed in School816 Words   |  3 Pagesschools around the country. Steven Johnson of New York: Basic claims that, â€Å"Writing an entire book by hands strikes me as being a little like filming Citizen Kane on a camcorder. You can make a go at it, of course, but on some fundamental level you’ve misjudged the appropriate scale of the technology you’re using†. What he is portraying is that using something other than technology in the school setting is a bit obsolete in today’s age. But then again, there are solid facts to contradict why theRead More The Future of Literature in the Age of Technology Essay1528 Words   |  7 Pagescomputers appears to render printed literature more obsolete - e-mail and chat rooms have nearly eliminated traditional written letters, the Internet has all but replaced the need for libraries and paper catalogues an d, soon, hypertext will completely overtake the realm of the printed novel. Computers have saturated our literary environment to such a degree that it is difficult to imagine a time when print was our most prized communication technology. To make an accurate hypothesis about the computer cultureRead MoreWith An Ever-Changing World, It Is Important To Predict1284 Words   |  6 Pagesimportant to predict the future of healthcare. With the advancements in technology, cost and improving patients safety is healthcare’s main concern. This paper analyzes the benefits and risks of paper vs. electronic vs. RFID charting. While paper charting in facilities are becoming obsolete, the alternatives still pose a risk for the provider and patient. Paper charting was once the first and only form of charting available in the healthcare system. With all of the advancements in technologyRead MoreHow Digital Books Affect Consumer Lifestyle: Kindle Case Study1698 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿I.Introduction Kindle is classified as an electronic reader which was released by Amazon in 2007. The Kindle is a handy and convenient e-book reader that provided the company with a way of maximizing sales of trade and other publications by catering to the wants of the digital public (Sapon-White, 2012). With the help of the wireless internet connections, it allows a customer to shop, download books, magazines and newspapers which are available in digital format. The device is a portable, handheldRead MoreEssay on Technology: Friend or Foe?2221 Words   |  9 Pagescalculator to something as complex as the newest secrets in military defense. Technology is applying the new and innovative discoveries in science to everyday tasks. The biggest concern about technology expressed in a growing number of articles and books has to do with computer technology. People are scared of the many advancements in computer technology such as the internet and the World Wide Web. Currently, information capabilities are growing quickly with few regulations. Some of the dispute comes

Thursday, May 14, 2020

William Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet - 1336 Words

While in the play we know Romeo has been hiding while he laments the rejection of Rosaline, in Luhrmann’s film we actually see how isolated he is. A widescreen shot of Romeo at the old theater on the beach shows how alone he is physically, so deeply heartbroken by the rejection of his affections. Even when he is not physically separated from others, he is mentally and emotionally aloof. His friends cannot understand his heartbreak. The night of the party, they rowdily banter with each other while he sits alone quietly. They must coax him and eventually offer him drugs to get him to the party with them. At the party, he is in his own world even before he meets Juliet. He steals away to the quiet of the washroom fish tank while his friends engage in lively song and dance. Throughout the whole film, Luhrmann creates the notion that Romeo is a very lonely character. The same could be said of Juliet. Luhrmann also shows her in a world of her own. In her first scene her mother and n urse are running around the house yelling her name, unable to find her because she has head down in her bath water. Before the party she stands alone on her balcony. Luhrmann’s exaggerated characterization of Lady Capulet separates her greatly from her daughter. Lady Capulet is lavish, vain, and too caught up in her own complicated relationships (such as her marriage with her abusive husband) to devote much attention to Juliet. Juliet’s only reliable companion is her Nurse and even she has a web ofShow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1287 Words   |  6 PagesLizzy Baginski English Composition 2 Mr. Spera March 10, 2015 Romeo and Juliet Research Paper The movie Romeo and Juliet is a modern classic film that took place in 1996. Overall this is a timeless story that everyone should go and watch. This movie has an intriguing plot line that tells the story of two feuding families, The Montagues and The Capulets, and how the children of these two different families fall in love. The two children overcome various obstacles such as hiding their chemistry fromRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet 966 Words   |  4 Pages Beauty Over Gold â€Å"Beauty provoketh thieves sooner than gold.--William Shakespeare, 1623. In his book As You Like It, William Shakespeare pointed out the supremacy of love rather than the want of gold and wealth. Truly, beauty is more important to thieves than wealth. Many of the thieves in this world would rather have an elegant woman than to obtain precious rubies. After all, what good is a prosperous man if he doesn’t have a charming woman? Two famous men grab my attention who didn’t fear forRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet Essay1024 Words   |  5 PagesRomeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families. It was among Shakespeare s most popular plays during his lifetime and, along with Hamlet, is one of his most frequently performed plays. Today, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers. Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. The plot is based on an ItalianRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1124 Words   |  5 PagesThe play Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families. It was among Shakespeare s most popular plays during his lifetime and, along with Hamlet, is one of his most frequently performed plays. Today, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers. Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. Its plot is based onRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet861 Words   |  4 Pagesgreatly shown in the play Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. It was love at first sight with Romeo Montague and Juliet Capulet. Meeting at a party and falling in love to get married without even spending quality time with each other. Romeo and Juliet couldn t tell there parents because the Capulets and Montagues are long term rivals. Both Romeo and Juliet had to find different ways and excuses to make this marriage work. A big problem was developed. Romeo kills Juliet s cousin and is banishedRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1770 Words   |  8 Pagesof Romeo and Juliet. The story of two destined lovers who were killed by their own doing. But what if they weren t two destined lovers who got unlucky, but doomed partners that were never going to have a good-life to begin with.William Sha kespeare gives us a view of early signs of gang conflict in the early age of Verona, Italy. He gives us a perspective of the norms and customs of Italy during the Setting of William Shakespeare s most famous story. Romeo and Juliet, by William Shakespeare, givesRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1616 Words   |  7 Pageslove can also cause some of life s most controversial battles. These battles could stem from lack of patience, disagreement of moral values, and in some cases, an absence of attraction overall. In Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, the issues that drive Romeo Montague and Juliet Capulet s to each of their dreadful misfortunes are inevitable. When it comes to many of Shakespeare s plays, Aristotle s theory is used to describe them as tragedies. Romeo and Juliet is known by many as a tragedyRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1264 Words   |  6 Pagestheater-going public the most important dramatist in English literature, Shakespeare oc cupies a well-known position in the world of talented authors. His canon contains thirty-seven plays, written in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Additionally, throughout the years, they continue to sustain critical attention, with the majority of his works circling tragedies, one being Romeo and Juliet. William Shakespeare s Romeo and Juliet speaks to the timeless appeal of star-crossed lovers. Their loveRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet924 Words   |  4 PagesWilliam Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy that follows the so-called love of two teenagers. The two fall in love at a masked ball and have a secret marriage. Throughout the play, their actions show how ridiculous love is, and how it is a danger to anyone who become twisted in its choking grasp. However, in the death of the youth and survival of the elders, an alternative explanation for the tragic events may be found. Although Shakespeare seems to be mocking love throughout the play, itRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1279 Words   |  6 Pagesour lives. The great, classic writers teach timeless, valuable life skills. Shakespeare was the greatest writer of all time. His writings mainly consisted of dramas and sonnets. Romeo and Juliet, as well as, A MIdsummer Night’s Dream were written about the same time period. He was able to inter relate everything that wrote. For example, the tale of Pyramus and Thisbe could possibly be an advertisement for Romeo and Juliet. The basic structure of the two dramas is the same; two forbidden lovers meet

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Life Of John Steinbeck Essays - 1314 Words

John Steinbeck was a writer who used naturalism in his works to to bring awareness about problems in society that he dealt with in his own life. He frequently dealt with the economic and social problems of migrant workers in California and how they dealt with everyday life. He wrote through his fiction about what he knew and what affected him personally. Specifically, he wrote a novella entitled, Of Mice and Men, about two California migrant workers, George Milton and Lennie Small, who are trying desperately to earn enough money to buy a couple of acres of their own so that they won’t have to keep running from there problems all the time. Naturalism was a literary movement throughout the U.S. and Europe in the late 19th century to the†¦show more content†¦At age 35, because of the success of Of Mice and Men, it was named a Book-of-the-Month Club choice and Steinbeck was named as one of Ten Outstanding Young Men of the Year. Also, Steinbeck was asked to write articles about migrant workers for magazines and newspapers, bringing further awareness to the hardships of the migrant workers (LIS 7 ). In Of Mice and Men , Steinbeck wrote about two laborers, George Milton and Lennie Small. George is a small, slender and smart man; Lennie is a large, clumsy mentally challenged man who is physically strong. George had promised Lennie’s Aunt Clara that he would take care of Lennie when she died. They have traveled from Weed, California, to work together on a ranch in Soledad. Lennie and George have fled from Weed because Lennie was accused of trying to assault a girl. He was touching her dress and when he stroked it too hard she screamed and he hung on to her in fear. George and Lennie have a dream, to earn enough money so that they can have a place to call their own. They want to have rabbits â€Å"An’ live off the fatta the lan’† (STE 5). They arrive in Soledad and meet The Boss, and his son Curley. George and Lennie also meet Slim, the ranch hand who seems to have authority in the bunkhouse, Curley’s wife, and Candy, the old swamper. Candy has a dog, it’s very old and dirty, and smells up the bunkhouse; so when Slim’s dog has puppies, they convince Candy to let them kill the old dog and give him one of the new puppies. The nightShow MoreRelatedLife of John Steinbeck974 Words   |  4 Pagesthe famous American writer was John Steinbeck. He earned a Nobel prize of literature from his American classic novels that he had written in the past. The Nobel prize was not the only award that he had earned for his literature, he earned different awards for his writings also (John Stein..). John Steinbeck is a man who had overcome different obstacles and being successful in life. Everyone has a life history, John Steinbeck also has a history of his own. His life story began on February 27, 1902Read MoreThe Life and Writings of John Steinbeck Essay1107 Words   |  5 Pagesearth.† John Steinbeck said this of all humankind. He thought highly of us as a species, just as Dr. Stockmann did in Henrik Ibsen’s play Enemy of the People. Both men had problems in their societies, Stockmann in his town and Steinbeck in America, and both believed that humans were capable of seeing the problem and fixing it. The rest of the population did not see this as the case. They believed he was an enemy of the people and a threat to their way of life. Because of how Steinbeck expressedRead MoreEssay about The Life Journey of John Steinbeck 1264 Words   |  6 PagesThe Life Journey of John Steinbeck Every great writer had their own influences, John Steinbeck was no exception. Steinbeck’s influences cam from family, friends, and his environment to write detailed descriptions to involve or influence the reader. Whenever someone reads one of John Steinbeck’s works they are in immersed in the scene he is describing, he makes you feel as if you are right there experiencing everything there first hand. Steinbeck had a relatively normal childhood growing upRead MoreThe Portrayals Of Life in The Pearl by John Steinbeck Essay919 Words   |  4 PagesIn the novella â€Å"The Pearl† by John Steinbeck, an improvised pearl diver finds a humungous pearl which is described as a â€Å" sea-gull egg. It was the greatest pearl in the world†(26), which he hopes to buy tranquility and happiness for his family. Instead, he learns that the valuable pearl cannot buy happiness but only destroy his simple life. Throughout this novella there is a constant theme woven through the characters and settings which encompasses the struggle among social classes to become successfulRead More John Steinbeck Essay1735 Words   |  7 Pages John Steinbeck was born on February 27, 1902 in Salinas, California, a farming community with of about 2500 people. He was the third of four children and the only son of John Ernst and Olive Hamiton Steinbeck. His sisters Beth and Esther were much older than John and he felt closest to Mary, the youngest. He spent his childhood and adolescence in the Salinas Valley, which he later called â€Å"the salad bowl of the nation.† John’s mother, Olive, was the daughter of Irish immigrants. She left her parents’Read MoreAnalysis Of John Steinbeck s The Grapes Of Wrath And Of Mice And Men 1433 Words   |  6 PagesJustina Recchia Mrs. Genthe HAL-Period 8 10 March 2015 â€Å"What is life, what is death, and what do they mean?† The answers to this question are â€Å"Life is a process, death is part of life, neither life nor death means anything-they simply are; and the important things in life are love and beauty, which bring joy to the process of living. These answers are the philosophy of John Steinbeck † (Benson 555). John Steinbeck was a major American writer who has written many books, which have come to be knownRead MoreAmerica Is Home To Many Great Writers Whom Come Different1709 Words   |  7 Pagesdifferent backgrounds. American authors like John Steinbeck who add biographical elements into their pieces of writing. John Steinbeck, one of the most honorable authors of time, is known for receiving Nobel Prize, California commonwealth club medal, Pulitzer Prize, and other great accomplishments towards publishing sixteen novels. Steinbeck’s realist style of writing and life experiences impacting his life show the reade r he’s been through a lot in his life and adds plenty of meaning into his storiesRead MoreSymbolism in The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck Essay1547 Words   |  7 PagesSymbolism in The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck The Chrysanthemums, one of John Steinbecks masterpieces, describes a lonely farmers wife, Elisa Allen. Elisa Allens physical appearance is very mannish yet still allows a hint of a feminine side to peek through. John Steinbeck brings symbolism into play to represent Elisa Allens frustrations and hidden passions. Isolation is another representation through symbolism found in The Chrysanthemums. Elisas failing detached marriage is representedRead More John Steinbeck was born to middle-lower class family in the farming1689 Words   |  7 PagesJohn Steinbeck was born to middle-lower class family in the farming community of Salinas, California. John’s Steinbeck Imagine†¦ your town is suddenly stricken with poverty. Your family business goes under because the economy of your local community can no longer support it. Herds of your closest friends continually move out of the town you grew up in due to a severe shortage of work. The basic necessities of life are so scarce that everyone around you reverts to their animalistic urgesRead More John Steinbeck Essay1174 Words   |  5 PagesJohn Steinbeck A novelist is someone who writes novels, or writes a fancy work of fiction which often has a complicated plot, many major and minor characters, a significant theme, and several varied settings. A novelist will use literary devices such as characterization, tone, symbolism, imagery, and figurative language. John Steinbeck, an American novelist, uses many literary devices such as metaphors, similes, imagery, and figurative language along with excellent descriptive words to develop

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Fiercely Feminine free essay sample

I am so lucky to have been able to spend the last 17 years of my life in a home filled with all of the comforts of a woman’s touch. Walking into my house, one can immediately sense the female influence: the scent of perfume in the air, the pile of fashion magazines on the coffee table, a vase of flowers centered in the room. Although this setting may not seem very significant, it truly is. All of the superficial ‘girly’ perks of my household reflects the strong feminist pride that has made me the person I am today. Throughout my life, I have been surrounded by generations of women. My sister in her early twenties, my mother in her late forties, and my grandmother in her middle sixties. Their years of experience and knowledge has helped to bring out my most dominant traits and attributes. My sister has instilled in me a sense of determination. We will write a custom essay sample on Fiercely Feminine or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page She always has a clear idea of what she wants and has the resolve and will to go out and get it. From becoming valedictorian to winning a competitive internship at a local newspaper, my sister has always pulled through to achieve her goals. Drive is a very important attribute of mine for I set high goals for myself and in order to accomplish these I will persevere over all of the exhaustion, sacrifice a lot of time, and work with passion. My mother has instilled in me a sense of independence. She is divorced from my father and has been single ever since. Even when she accomplishes the smallest tasks, I feel inspired by her. Whether it involves moving heavy furniture around the house or dealing with car problems, my mother has been able to handle all of the typical household responsibilities a man would handle. Because of her, I have become a fiercely independent person. When I accomplish something all on my own, I feel satisfied and proud. My grandmother has instilled in me the desi re to be generous. My grandmother is one of the most giving, caring people I know. She always takes care of the family and will do whatever it takes to make our lives a little easier. She has helped me to realize that I want to make a difference in people’s lives and give as much as I can. Whether I decide to pursue a field in humanities or a career in non-profit organizations, I know I want to make a positive impact on the world around me. Living in this world of strong ‘girl power’ has instilled in me a pride like no other. I am proud to be a sister, a daughter, and a granddaughter. But most importantly, I am proud to be myself.

Friday, April 10, 2020

The Great Gatsby Essays (2434 words) - The Great Gatsby,

The Great Gatsby The Great Gatsby Dreams The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, is a novel about the American Dream. In the Great Gatsby, the dream is that one can acquire happiness through wealth and power. To get his happiness Jay attempts to reacquire the love of his lost sweet heart, Daisy. The main problem with Jays dream is that Daisy is all ready married. Gatsby's personal dream symbolizes the larger American Dream The pursuit of happiness. Jay Gatsby longs for the past. Surprisingly he devotes his adult life trying to recapture it and dies in its pursuit. In the past, Jay had a love affair with a young rich girl, Daisy. Daisy and Jay had fallen in love with each other in spite of knowing that they could not marry because of the difference in their social status. For the first time in Jays life he was truly happy. During their courtship, Jay was sent off to war. Upon returning from the war, Jay found out that Daisy had married a wealthy man by the name of Tom Buchannon. Jay then spends his life acquiring wealth to reach her economic standards, in hope that he can marry her and rekindle the happiness that he once had. His love for Daisy was impossible in society because he was at present a penniless young man without a pasthe had no comfortable family standing behind him (156). Gatsby encounters his dream of love at this point of his life. He knew that at that time a relationship of love was impossible with Daisy due to his low social standing. Gatsby became determined to breach that gap between them in order to have a loving relationship with Daisy. He did reach the physical circumstances necessary to love her, but he had focused too much on money and power the previous five years of his life. He wanted his love with Daisy to flourish. Unfortunately, he had lost the ability to love. He no longer possessed moral integrity or the ability to handle a relationship. Society is often broken up into different social groups by their economic status. Those of lower classes believe that their problems will go away if they can gain enough wealth to reach the upper class. Many people believe that the American Dream is this joining of the upper class, and once reaching that point, not having to be concerned about money at all. The logic behind this is that being poor keeps people from being happy, and once you become rich, you do not have to struggle with the problems of life, and can therefore be happy. The Great Gatsby takes this belief, and shows its flaws through the lives of Jay, Tom and Daisy. In fact, all of the characters in the story are affected in some way by the lives of these three characters. Gatsby makes becoming an upper class citizen his priority. The life of the upper class in turn, makes the acquisition of wealth their priority. Wealth becomes Jays vehicle in his quest for his primary goal, Daisy. In Gatsby's rise to power morality is sacrificed in order to attain wealth. While the story does not go into great detail as to how Gatsbys wealth was accumulated, it can easily be seen that his business ventures were shady at best. Gatsby's dream was doomed to failure because of his lack of principles. This shows a major flaw of the American Dream philosophy, just like the get rich quick schemes of today, Jay is trying to buy Daisys love, not earn it. Nick attempts to tell Jay that his dream is pointless by saying that the past cannot be relived. Jay quickly told Nick, Yes you can, old sport. This shows the confidence that Jay has in fulfilling his American Dream, and his commitment to it. Tom Buchanan, Daisys husband, was a man from an enormously wealthy family. Nick, described Tom's physical attributes as having a hard mouth and a supercilious mannerarrogant eyes had established dominance over his facealways leaning aggressively forwarda cruel bodyhis speaking voiceadded to the impression of fractiousness he conveyed (11). The wealth Tom has inherited causes him to become arrogant and condescending to others. Tom believed that he

Monday, March 9, 2020

The role of conscience in moral decision-making Essays

The role of conscience in moral decision-making Essays The role of conscience in moral decision-making Paper The role of conscience in moral decision-making Paper Conscience can be defined as something within each of us that tells us what is right and what is wrong. In Latin ’Con’ means with and ’science’ means knowledge. Therefore we should surely use our conscience when we are making decisions as we should be being told what is the right thing to do and what is wrong. This however doesn’t always seem to be the case. The problem with using your conscience is that it is not consistent. We can see this when claims have been made after someone made the wrong choice. For example at the time he was Prime minister Tony Blair took the choice to go to war with Iraq. It is widely regarded as being the wrong choice to have made and Tony Blair said in response that he was following his conscience. There are religious and secular (non-religious) views on the conscience. The religious views have been developed from biblical teaching and the divine command theory. However there is more than one interpretation about the conscience. Thomas Aquinas for example believed that people should follow their conscience totally as long as your principles are right because it is the voice of reason. On the other hand Butler argued the conscience comes form intuition. Thomas Aquinas thought that synderesis is the means of distinguishing between right and wrong. Synderesis was first used by Aristotle and is the ability of the mind to understand the first principles of moral reasoning. He noticed that people do chose the wrong choice and said that this was ‘conscientia’ which is the actual ethical judgement or decision a person makes. Aquinas said that it is important to apply your moral principles to each situation but you can still be wrong if you follow your conscience because your principles can be wrong so your conscience will be too. Conscience is reasoning used correctly to find out what God sees is good. Joseph Butler similarly to Aquinas believed that conscience could determine and judge the rightness or wrongness of different actions or thoughts. However Butler saw the conscience as being more authoritative that â€Å"magisterially exerts itself. † in such a way that it had the last say when it comes to moral decision making. Butler described a hierarchy of human nature in which the desire for food and other animal instincts are at the bottom and the conscience at the top. Self love and benevolence was above the drives and the ability to reflect was above that. Mistakes made by conscience were not seen as particularly bad to Butler as he believed that we would intuitively know what the right action to take is. However convincing yourself that a wrong action is right is more evil than the action which results from it. John Henry Newman also took Conscience from a view point and took an intuitionists approach to conscience. This meant that the mind is able to percieve abstract concepts of truths normally thought to beyond empirical evidence. He believed that we when we followed our conscience we were following some kind of divine law like a messenger from God. He believed that he could prove this when â€Å"we feel responsibility, are ashamed, are frightened at transgressing the voice of conscience, this implies there is One to whom we are responsible. Newman also believed that the more relativist (atheist) a person is the less of a conscience they will have as they do not follow a God (an absolute unchanging moral authority). He therefore saw that our conscience will continuously change in different circumstances not making it a reliable source to make a decision on. Augustine too believed that we should take it seriously and listen to our conscience because we are hearing the word of God. Therefore Newman, Augustine and Butler take a much less rationalist view upon conscience compared to Aquinas but as all four believe that God is involved with our Conscience it is important to use it when making moral-decisions, especially if we believe in God. Due to there being Secular views on the conscience the debate over nurture or nature has risen. This is questioning whether we get our morals and our conscience before we are born or whether we develop morality as we get older. With this argument there is also the belief that we have both. For example a Secularist could hold that we are born with our natural instincts that encourage us to do good because it will encourage our survival. This would be a Darwinian approach. The same person could then argue that we also develop our morals during life that allow us to fit into society and the rules and regulations that surround it. A religious person could say the same except that we would have been given a conscience before we were born by God. Sigmund Freud was a psychiatrist that took a secular view on the conscience. He studied the human mind and its effects on the body. He also saw that human personality like Butler could be put into a hierarchy. Both Freud and Butler put drives such as sexual drives at the bottom of the triangle. However Freud then put the ‘Id’ in the space above this which represents the part of a human that is amoral (has no morality). The Id contains our wishes and instincts. Then at the top of the triangle was the ‘Ego’ which is the conscious part of a human that shows on the outside. A smaller space is taken up at the top by the ‘super-ego’ which is the set of moral controls that are given to us by outside influences. Freud explains that the super ego is often in conflict with the Id therefore our conscience, which is a construct of the mind, is shaped and influenced by our experiences. Jean Piaget a psychiatrist saw that a child’s moral development grows and the ability to reason morally depends on cognitive development. He suggested two stages which were later developed by Kohlberg. Heteronymous (other law) which a child is from the age of five to ten. The conscience is still immature and punishment is expected if a rule is broken. Autonomous (self law) is the next stage when a child reaches the age of 10 and over. At this age the child understands how rules operate in and help society, they are less dependent on moral authority Piaget down quite extensive research experiments on children by asking in which of two stories told to them the child was the naughtiest. His results showed that younger children evaluated the actions by the size of the outcome whereas the older children evaluated the stories through the intentions of the child. It is said that Piagets definition of morality is narrow. One of the reasons for this is that is becomes overly rational and disregards the function of morality in promoting human fulfilment. Kohlberg extended the stages to six and believed that the individual would have to follow them in sequence. The most important moral development occurs through social interactions. Fromm on the other hand had two approaches and didn’t think there was stages in moral development but saw that all humans are influenced by external authorities like parents, teachers and church leaders. He thought that a guilty conscience is a result of displeasing these authorities. The example of the Nazi government in Germany in the 1930’s was very successful about manipulating the conscience’s of its people to encourage them not to help the Jews. But that was his authoritarian approach and he had a humanistic approach. This was that our conscience is our real self and leads us to realise our full potential using our experiences not slavish obedience. It appears the conscience should take a large role in how we make moral decisions. However for both Secular and Religious views on the conscience we have seen that mistakes can be made. These mistakes are the products of wrong principles or bad nurturing as a child growing up or manipulations and bad influences. Therefore conscience should take a big role in making moral decisions but one should also consider the fact that they may be wrong and should compare the choice they want to make to another to see if one is greater.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Western vision and American values. Western notions of freedom and Essay

Western vision and American values. Western notions of freedom and democracy - Essay Example This question requires the discussion of the notion of the Rule of law and how it has developed within and through the Western Notions of freedom and democracy. My discussion explores the position vis a vis the two great democratic nations which have led the world in their quest for human rights and whose legal and political systems are deemed to be the envy of the world.It has often been said that the modern American Constitution along with the Declaration of Independence is a result of Lockean Ideals of Liberalism(that is John Locke’s Concepts based on liberty, freedom, instituting government, and the right to alter that government.).However proponents of the heavy influence of British/European ideals (Gary Wills for example) have argued that a much more important role in this regard has been played by Scottish philosophers ,the Dutch and more importantly Britain.(Kavka 1986:45).Thomas G. West (2003:95) has summarized the position with regards to John Locke’s ideals t hus by way of stating,According to Sheldon the Declaration of Rights reflects â€Å"three dominant ideologies present during the American revolution and the founding of the American republic. These political philosophies were British liberalism†¦Classical Republicanism†¦and Christianity,† It can be seen that the Western Ideals of Government and Democracy are directly a result of the way ancient Roman and European philosophers sought to understand the human nature by the concept of the â€Å"state of nature.† "state of nature." (Kavka 1986:87).This theory sought to look at human beings after stripping them of all their societal attributes, in the hope of uncovering their common characteristics.(Jean 1986:46) Through this theory they hoped to discover an effective theory of Government.For Hobbes man is purely motivated by self interest and in his notion of the state of nature all humans are competing with each other .(Jean 1986:58).For Locke of the state of nature reveals the obligations of humans to each other in terms of natural rights to life, liberty and property. In contrast for Rousseau in line with the tradition of the modern natural law there was a need to answer the "challenge of scepticism" and this would require a step by step approach to human nature based on self interest. (Jean 1986:69).For Hobbes men are politically obligated to each other based on their own selfish interests which is their state of nature. The notion of the state of nature assumes that it is each man for hi mself out there and every man is vulnerable. This he shows is not a desirable "state" to be in at all and therefore there is a need of an invisible assurance of security.For him this state of " perpetual and unavoidable war", will cause anarchy and will not benefit anyone.(Kavka 1986:87).Here he brings in his notions of the social contract which will help this society to restore stability and create a civil society. The first and most important law of nature commands that each man be willing to pursue peace when others are willing to do the same, all the while retaining the right to continue to pursue war when others do not pursue peace. The enforcement of the social contract thus involves the establishment of a society and the imbuement of one or many individuals with a sovereign status in order to "enforce and maintain" this contract. For Rousseau's the idea of the State of Nature takes a historic approach to this idea and mankind's progression into the civil society. He goes back to the historic state of nature for men and terms it as a peaceful time with a simple life for human kind. There was no competition as there was little population and plenty of resources. Armed conflict was barely there and people had little interaction with each other.For him human nature has corrupted into